(Note on Dec 15th 2009: I wrote this post a year ago and it includes my outsider’s summary of what Eid al-Adha is all about and a few personal reflections on life here in Amman last year during the Eid. For my 2009 account of visiting the place of sacrifice on Eid al-Adha with a gallery of pics, click here.)
Today is Sunday in Jordan. But not just any Sunday – it’s the Sunday after the long break for the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Adha. As Sunday is the first day of the work week here many people were back to their jobs and schools after some time off. We had a break as well and I had plans all week to write something here about the Eid. Oh well, better late than never!
For those who don’t know – here’s a thumbnail sketch of Eid al-Adha. This is the second major holiday on the Islamic calendar. (or maybe first – somebody can correct me if they know for sure) The first is Eid al-Fitr which is the major feast at the end of Ramadan (the month of fasting). Eid al-Adha also happens during a very important time on the Islamic calendar – al-Hajj. This is the time of the pilgrimage to Mecca which many understand to be a commemoration of Muhammad’s flight (or emigration) from Mecca to Medina.
Pilgrims throng the Great Mosque in the Islamic holy city of Mecca during the Hajj
Although the entire hajj is important, one of the most important parts is the vigil held on the plains and mount of Arafat. It is on this mountain that Muslims believe that Muhammad gave his farewell speech. It is required for pilgrims to pray prayers of repentance in this spot on the Day of Arafat which is always 70 days following the start of the month of Ramadan and the 9th day of the month of the Hajj (note that the Islamic calenar follows a lunar year so the dates of these observances change each year on the Gregorian calendar).
Muslim pilgrims at the Mount/Plain of Arafat
It is said that failure to appear at the plain of Arafat invalidates a pilgrims Hajj. It is also said that the erstwhile prayers offered hear can earn a faithful Muslims a clean slate from their sins. Many pilgrims will maintain the vigil not only during the day but throughout the night until the following day.
Muslim pilgrims holding a nighttime vigil on the Mountain of Arafat
The next day pilgrims make their way to the nearby city of Mina where they commemorate the other important aspect of the Hajj – remembering the life of the prophet Abraham. Muslims believe that it is near this location that Abraham almost sacrificed his son. Just like the story from the Torah, Allah provides a goat/sheep at the last moment, redeeming the life of Abraham’s son. For Muslims who do not travel to Saudia Arabia this story is the centerpiece of Eid al-Adha – the holiday/holy days associated with the Hajj.
Here in Amman (just like the rest of the Islamic world) this means sacrificing a sheep/goat. In the days leading up to Eid al-Adha I overheard a number of conversations about the best place to buy sheep, and engaged in a number of conversastions about the yearly sacrifice.
Sheep awaiting their important role in Eid al-Adha celebrations
Families who can afford to purchase a sheep at 200 Dinars ($284) or so, will use a portion of the sheep for a celebration with their family. A portion is then reserved to give to the poor and perhaps a portion reserved to give to the extended family. If a family is wealthy enough they will purchase one sheep for each category (immediate family, the poor, extended family). I did speak to a lot of people who said they could not afford to make a sacrifice themselves this year, but Eid al-Adha is also an important time to visit family, and many expected to celebrate with those in their family who could afford to make the sacrifice.
Apparently some people make the sacrifice at their homes, but most take the sheep to a special place reserved for the sacrifice and have a trained individual perform the sacrifice and butchering of the sheep for distribution. The sacrifice itself can be made anytime after the vigil of Arafat or after the morning prayers are made on the particular day.
Here in Amman I awoke to the extended version of the morning call to prayer, which included about 45 minutes to an hour of chanting “Allahu Akbaar, Akbaar Allah! Akbaar Allah” (God is the Greatest!) After that I wondered up the hill to check out the neighborhood mosque. It was standing room only and took nearly 10 minutes for the place to empty out after the sermon.
In Saudia Arabia pilgrims make the sacrifice on the day following the Vigil at Arafat. But first they must take part in the ritual stoning of the Jararat or three stone pillars representing Satan.
One of the original stone pillars representing Satan near Mina
As you can see the pillars were quite small and it took a long time for millions of pilgrims to throw 7 stones each at 3 pillars. There are stories of pilgrims being trampled, seriously injured,and sometimes passing away due to the press of the crowd. A couple of years ago the Saudia government decided to replace the original pillars with large walls that would facilitate the flow of pilgrims through this stage of the hajj.
New walls representing Satan and awaiting stoning by pilgrims on Hajj near Mina
This may seem like an odd ritual, but it is important to the Islamic version of the story of Abraham sacrificing his son. Muslims believe that it was Satan, rather than God, who asked Abraham to sacrifice his son. According to some interpretations of the Qur’an, Satan used a dream to trick Abraham into believing that God wanted Abraham to sacrifice his son. Allah intervened at the last minute and provides an alternative sacrfice, which the Quran calls a great ransom or redemption.
I found that this was a great time of year to learn more about local beliefs and customs as many were very happy to respond to questions about the Eid and the sacrifice. I hope next year to actually get over to the place of sacrifice. And maybe I’ll understand more of the morning sermon next year too. For now it is back to work and school for most (myself included). Of course Eid celebrations this year have flowed into Christmas celebrations. Christians are hanging lights and putting up trees. And students are looking forward to their next break from school. Someone told me 2 days for Christian students and 1 for Muslim. I’ll have to check and see if that’s true.
Filed under: culture, Eid al-Adha | Tagged: Amman, Crossing Cultures, culture, Eid al-Adha, Intercultural Notes, Islam, Local Customs, Religion | 4 Comments »