Jordan is a constitutional monarchy officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The Hashemites are a historic Arab tribe tracing their roots to the prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and ultimately to Hashem the great-grandfather of Muhammad (hence the name Hashemite). The current ruler of the kingdom of Jordan is His Majesty King Abdullah II bin Hussein. He ascended the throne in 1999 after the death of his father King Husein who had reigned since 1952. There have been 4 official kings of Jordan since it became an independent state in 1946. Interestingly, you can tell the history of the Jordanian monarchy by taking a look at it’s major currency notes
A History Lesson from Jordanian Currency
From the 10th century, a Hashemite
was appointed as the ruler of Mecca.
In 1906 Hussein bin Ali became Emir.
in 1916, with the help of the British he shook
off the Ottamans, ruling the Hejaz Kingdom
and briefly declaring himself Caliph until
1924 when the Sauds forced him out.
From that time he lived in Transjordan
under his son’s rule. Hussein died in 1931.
Abdullah had served in the Ottoman government
but later worked with T.E. Lawrence and his father
to overthrow the Turks during the Arab Revolt.
He ruled as Emir of Transjordan under the Brits
Until independence in 1946, and then as king
until he was assassinated in Jerusalem in 1951.
Talal was Jordan’s briefest King ruling
only for 1 year. He stepped down in 1952
for health reasons, reportedly that he had
schizophrenia. The highlight of his monarchy
was the ratification of the Jordanian Constitution
establishing the Parliamentary system that
is still in use today. Talal died in Istanbul in 1972.
At age 16, Hussein narrowly escaped being
assassinated with his grandfather in 1951.
After Talal’s short reign Hussein was enthroned
at the age of 17 and ruled for 46 years. He is
Jordan’s most beloved King, having guided the
country successfully through 4 decades of
conflict and growth. He signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Hussein was well respected
in the international community and his loss to cancer in 1999 was felt keenly around the world.
The first several years of Abdullah II’s reign were
marked with solid financial growth, but the recent
global economic downturn has presented new challenges to the monarch.
Despite rumblings within certain segments of society, Jordan was weathered the tumult
of the Arab Spring fairly quietly. Abdullah II is
well-liked both within and outside of Jordan. Named on of the 4 most influential Muslims in the world in 2010, Abdullah II has been a face for moderate Islam. The 2004 he published the “Amman Message“, a treatise on moderate Islam.
Well that’s the history of the Jordanian monarchy in a nut shell. A short paragraph is hardly suitable to describe the impact each of these great men have had on their country and the world and I would encourage you to do some more research on your own if you are interested in the history of Jordan.